globe
  1. Course information 29 items
    1. The aim of this course is to examine the relationship between theory and ethnography in social and cultural anthropology. During the Michaelmas term the course focuses on the development of anthropology before circa 1980 in the British, French and American schools. It will explore anthropological epistemology or the discipline's forms and methods of knowledge production. Rather than outlining theoretical schools and their demise, it will explore the creation of key concepts that are the foundations for current debates. The course moves through time with a geneaological method or by tracing the 'birth' of concepts that shape the present and future of our discipline. It will also bring from the margins forgotten ancestors and their hetereodox ideas, which are not usually part of the canon. The emergence of key concepts will be linked to intellectual projects, fieldwork encounters and historical events. The unique quality of anthropology is that it is a qualitative social science committed to a 'radical empiricism' (Jackson) or 'realism' (Herzfeld) (unlike economics or sociology for example). In other words its concepts are driven primarily from dissonant encounters with the social and cultural world 'at home' and in 'the field.' Some of the key concepts we will explore will be: participant observation and evidence; culture and race; relativism and surrealism; totemism and animism; magic, art and science, ritual; inequality; personhood, agency and ethics; kinship and gender.

       

      Lectures and seminars will focus on the relationship between theory and ethnography. The reading list is divided into: essential readings for seminars, further readings and films. Each week we will have a team of presenters in seminars. It is important that they prepare short presentations and questions for discussion that draw not just on the key readings, but also on some of the further readings. They should explain how theoretical concepts shape monographs and develop from fieldwork. When you write tutorial essays for this course you should also explore the relationship between theory and ethnography.The summer exam questions will follow this format too. 

       

      An initial set of questions is provided for each seminar to focus your reading. You do not have to stick to the questions on the list; they are formulated for your guidance only. But try to stay close to the area specified.

       

      Classwork duties

      At the beginning of term you will join a study group of 4-5 people. Your study group will choose two weeks during the term in which you will run a seminar. When it is your group's turn to present you should think through a series of points linked to questions that will stimulate your classmates. This entails framing some general questions about the theories and the issues they raise, and asking more specific questions about the required readings and how they interconnect. The main aim is to focus the discussion on what you think are the most important aspects of the week's topic and help participants to develop an understanding of the issues. Handouts or powerpoints can help to focus everyone on the questions. You should send the questions you have developed to me for feedback by 9:30 am on the Wednesday before each class. 

    2. Books and readings 28 items
      1. Essential readings, and some further readings, are available on Moodle. All texts are also in the LSE library. In general I recommend that you spend some time browsing the anthropology shelves in the library as this will lead to your own unexpected discoveries of 'the canon.' There is no text book for the course, but the following general works will be of use for background understanding. The first group examine key figures and concepts in social theory. The second group of books examine the history of anthropological theory, but the account they give reveals the intellectual commitments of their authors. So these histories should not be read uncritically. They are vistas onto anthropological history from which you can develop your own perspectives. 

      2. Social Theory 15 items
        1. The revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx - Alex Callinicos, Jean-Yves Calvez 1983

          Book Background

        2. Emile Durkheim - Kenneth Thompson 2002

          Book Background

        3. The Max Weber dictionary: key words and central concepts - Richard Swedberg, Ola Agevall 2005

          Book Background

        4. The Columbia history of twentieth-century French thought - Lawrence D. Kritzman, Brian J. Reilly, M. B. DeBevoise 2006

          Book Background

        5. Pierre Bourdieu: key concepts - Michael Grenfell 2008

          Book Background

        6. Michel Foucault: key concepts - Dianna Taylor 2011

          Book Background

        7. Simone de Beauvoir's political thinking - Lori Jo Marso, Patricia Moynagh c2006

          Book Background

        8. Frantz Fanon - Pramod K. Nayar 2012

          Book Background

        9. Postcolonial studies: the key concepts - Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, Bill Ashcroft 2013

          Book Background

        10. Out of Africa: post-structuralism's colonial roots - D. P. S. Ahluwalia c2010

          Book Background

        11. Bourdieu in Algeria: colonial politics, ethnographic practices, theoretical developments - Jane E. Goodman, Paul A. Silverstein 2009

          Book Background

      3. History of Anthropology 12 items
        1. Functionalism historicized: essays on British social anthropology - George W. Stocking 1984

          Book Background

        2. Malinowski, Rivers, Benedict, and others: culture and personality - George W. Stocking 1986

          Book Background

        3. Romantic motives: essays on anthropological sensibility - George W. Stocking 1996

          Book Background

        4. A history of anthropology - Thomas Hylland Eriksen, Finn Sivert Nielsen 2013

          Book Background

        5. A new history of anthropology - Henrika Kuklick c2008

          Book Background

        6. Anthropology in theory: issues in epistemology - Henrietta L. Moore, Todd Sanders 2014

          Book Background This is an ebook while the library also has physical copies

        7. The reinvention of primitive society: transformations of a myth - Adam Kuper 2005

          Book Background This is an ebook while the library also has physical copies

  2. Week 1: The Canon: Foundations and Futures 17 items
    What is a canon? What is theory? What is the relationship between theory and ethnography? The history of anthropological theory is often told as an account of the influence of social theorists such as Durkheim, Weber, Marx, Foucault and Bourdieu on the discipline. It then continues to outline a series of theoretical debates and their resolutions. But is our canon such a straightforward artefact of ideas and their impact? Where do knowledge and theory come from and what are they? How useful are Foucault’s ideas of genealogy and discourse in answering these questions? Can these ideas capture the process through which anthropologists generate knowledge from fieldwork relations and their epistemological commitment to realism? How could we develop new engagements with the history of our discipline by recollecting different ancestors and movements?
    1. Key readings 4 items
      1. The endurance of critique - Didier Fassin 2017

        Article Essential

      2. Theory as vision - Biao Xiang 2016

        Article Background

      3. Theorizing in ex-centric sites - Faye V. Harrison 2016

        Article Essential

    2. Further readings 11 items
      1. Lifeworlds: essays in existential anthropology - Michael Jackson 2013

        Book Background

      2. Theory in Anthropology Since Feminist Practice - Jane F. Collier, Sylvia J. Yanagisako 1989

        Article Background

      3. Introduction: A joyful history of anthropology - Bhrigupati Singh, Jane I. Guyer 2016

        Article Background

      4. Theory from the south, or, how Euro-America is evolving toward Africa - Jean Comaroff, John L. Comaroff 2012

        Book Background

      5. Facing Mount Kenya: the tribal life of the Gikuyu - Jomo Kenyatta 1938

        Book Background Please read especially "Introduction" by Bronislaw Malinowski, Ch 2 “The Gikuyu System of Land Tenure” and Ch 11 “The New Religion in East Africa”

      6. Review of Facing Mount Kenya - Barbara Celerant 2010

        Article Background

    3. Theoretical influences 2 items
      1. The Order of Discourse - Michel Foucault 1970

        Chapter Background

      2. Nietzsche, genealogy, history - Michel Foucault 1978

        Chapter Background

  3. Week 2: Objects and Methods of Study: Participant Observation and Evidence 23 items
    What is the method of participant observation and how does it generate evidence? How do theoretical frames interact with social reality in the process of participant observation? How does theory shape the writing of ethnography? How do personal experience and political commitments intersect with theory and fieldwork to generate knowledge? Radcliffe Brown and Malinowski established participant observation as a central knowledge practice in anthropology. They both sought to turn their discipline into a social science similar to Durkheimian sociology. Yet their theoretical perspectives structural-functionalism and functionalism were distinct. To what extent did these differences in theory affect and/or emerge from their fieldwork? Can these differences in theory be traced in the way they wrote their ethnographies? How were Radcliffe-Brown and Malinowski’s approaches expanded by the anthropologists trained by them (Bateson, Tax, Srinivas) to generate new, critical forms of fieldwork and knowledge?
    1. Key readings 8 items
      1. Introduction of "Argonauts of the Western Pacific: an account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagos of Melanesian New Guinea" - Bronislaw Malinowski 2014, c1922

        Chapter Essential This is the Introduction of Bronislaw Malinowski's classic "Argonauts of the Western Pacific." For essays, please also read especially Ch 3 “The Essentials of the Kula,” & Ch 22 “The Meanings of the Kula”. You can access all the chapters of the 2014 edition online via Dawsonera e-books, please follow the link to the resource. LSE username and password may be required

      2. Please read EITHER

      3. Epilogue of "Naven: a survey of the problems suggested by a composite picture of the culture of a New Guinea tribe drawn from three points of view" - Gregory Bateson 1958

        Chapter Essential Please read at least the Epilogue, plus Introduction, and you can dip into chapters for essays

      4. OR

    2. Further readings 11 items
      1. Structure and Function in Primitive Society - A.R Radcliffe-Brown 1965

        Chapter Background This is an ebook on Radcliffe-Brown's social anthropology edited by Adam Kuper, and accessible online, please follow the link. Other illustrative reprinted chapters include “Religion and society” and “On joking relationships”

      2. The remembered village - Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas 1980

        Book Background Please read especially Ch1, Ch2 and Ch3

      3. Malinowski: odyssey of an anthropologist, 1884-1920 - Michael W. Young 2004

        Book Background Please read especially Ch20, "Kiriwina," pp. 383-414

      4. Excluded ancestors, inventible traditions: essays toward a more inclusive history of anthropology - Richard Handler 2000

        Book Background Please read especially the chapter on Sol Tax

      5. The objects of evidence - Matthew Engelke 2008

        Article Background

    3. Theoretical influences 4 items
      1. What is a Social Fact? - Emile Durkheim c1895, 2014

        Chapter Background This is a chapter in an ebook of Durkheim's Rules of Sociological Method, please follow the link, while the library also has physical copies. For essays, please also read especially chapters 2 and 5

      2. The epistemological background to Malinowski’s empiricism - Edmund Leach 2002

        Chapter Background This is a chapter in an ebook, please follow the link

      3. A scientific theory of culture and other essays - Bronislaw Malinowski c1944, 2002

        Book Background Please read especially Ch VII & VIII

  4. Week 3: Culture and Race 31 items
    What is culture and how was it born as a concept? What intellectual, political and social problems did it ‘solve’ for the Boasians? Is it a subversive, counterpoint to the category of race and ideas of social evolutionism? Does it support a productive relativism? Or does it have limits as a mode of analysis? How might we use it now? Boas is credited with the invention of the concept of culture, which underlies the traditions of analysis in US anthropology. But what ideas from German geography, folk law studies and nationalism did he draw on to construct this concept? How did his personal experience inform this concept? Why did he question race as an object of study in anthropology? To what extent was the concept of culture changed by his students Mead, Benedict, Zora Neale Hurston and Sapir? Did it alter further as a result of second world war and cold war politics? How successful are hetereodox applications of the concept of culture to ethnographies of racial politics and Hollywood by Hortense Powdermaker? Does the concept of culture still influence anthropology’s analysis of the social construction of race?
    1. Key readings 8 items
      1. The Stability of Culture - Franz Boas c1929, 2014

        Chapter Essential

      2. Human Nature and Race - Peter Wade 2004

        Article Essential

      3. Please read EITHER

      4. A Group in a Process of Acculturation - Hortense Powdermaker c1939, 1993

        Chapter Essential This is a chapter in Powdermaker's monograph, "After Freedom: a cultural study in the deep south"

      5. OR

      6. How it feels to be colored me - Zora Neal Hurston c1928, 1994, 2015

        Chapter Essential

    2. Further readings 23 items
      1. Afterword: Looking for Zora - Alice Walker 1973

        Chapter Background The Library is unable to provide an electronic copy of an extract from this book, due to copyright restrictions placed on it by the publisher.

      2. Anthropological intelligence: the deployment and neglect of American anthropology in the Second World War - David H. Price 2008

        Book Background

      3. Stranger and friend: the way of an anthropologist - Hortense Powdermaker 1966

        Book Background

      4. Mules and men - Zora Neale Hurston 2008

        Book Background Please read especially Introduction and dip into any chapters

  5. Week 4: Totemism, Animism, Ontology 22 items
    What are Totemism, Animism and Taboo? Are they signs of the social construction of nature, of alternative philosophies, of universal structures of human thought and/or engagements with environments? How are these ways of constructing the world, similar or distinct from those of capitalism and science? Durkheim and Mauss first proposed that in a 1903 essay that the categories of human thought were collective representations derived from society. The proof for them was provided through an analysis of representations of the natural world in totemism and animism. How is this tradition of analysis of ‘collective representations’ different from the Boasian analysis of culture? What are the reformulations of this analysis in Mary Douglas, Levi-Strauss and the ‘ontological turn’? How might we combine materialist and idealist analyses of representations of the world and ‘nature’?
    1. Key readings 8 items
      1. Conclusion of "Primitive Classification" - Emile Durkheim, Marcel Mauss c1903, 2010

        Chapter Essential This is an ebook accessible online, please follow the link and navigate to the conclusion. For essays, you can pick either Ch 1, III or IV

      2. The Science of the Concrete - Claude Levi-Strauss 1962

        Chapter Essential

      3. "Introduction" of Purity and Danger: an analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo - Mary Douglas c1966, 2002

        Chapter Essential Please read the Introduction of Purity and Danger for this week, and for your essays any following chapters, but especially on Leviticus.

      4. Constructing Natures: Symbolic Ecology and Social Practice - Philippe Descola c1996, 2004

        Chapter Essential This is a chapter in an ebook that you can access online, please navigate to Chapter 5, pp. 82-100

      5. Please read EITHER

      6. OR

    2. Further readings 14 items
      1. Seasonal variations of the Eskimo: a study in social morphology - Marcel Mauss 2004, c1979

        Book Background

      2. Pigs for the ancestors: ritual in the ecology of a New Guinea people - Roy A. Rappaport c1968, 1984

        Book Background

      3. Ecological Anthropology - Benjamin S. Orlove 1980

        Article Background

      4. Ethnographies of conservation: environmentalism and the distribution of privilege - David G. Anderson, Eeva K. Berglund 2002

        Book Background Please read especially "Introduction"

      5. Introduction: Resource Materialities - Tanya Richardson, Gisa Weszkalnys 2014

        Article Background

      6. Cosmological Deixis and Amerindian Perspectivism - Eduardo Viveiros de Castro 1998

        Article Background

      7. Ontology Is Just Another Word for Culture - Michael Carrithers, Matei Candea, Karen Sykes, Martin Holbraad 2010

        Article Background

      8. Zoology and Meatology - Valerio Valeri 2000

        Chapter Background Please read especially chapter 4, and for essays, chapter 2

  6. Week 5: Magic, Science & Rationality 22 items
    What is magic, and what is its relationship to science and art? How does anthropology both critique and analyse ‘rationality’? How does anthropology analyse the uncanny and to what extent does this reflect its own ‘rationality’? The social evolutionary approach to magic and science by Frazer and Levy-Bruhl (that magic was the product of faulty reasoning among ‘primitive societies’ and different from science or other ‘modern’ practices) was challenged by Mauss & Hubert, Malinowski and Evans Pritchard in the 1920s-30s. How were their approaches to magic distinct? How are these different traditions expressed in later approaches to magic and critiques of rationality by Gell, Lurhman and Latour and Woolgar? Was ethnographic surrealism a more radical critique of rationality and modernity or were its strategies problematic?
    1. Key readings 7 items
      1. An Ethnographic Theory of the Magical World - Bronislaw Malinowski c1935, 1966

        Chapter Essential Please read especially Div I (the meaning of meaningless words) Div V (Digression on the General Theory of Magic), Div VI (An Ethnographic Theory of the Magical Word)

      2. Technology and Magic - Alfred Gell 1988

        Article Essential

      3. Please read EITHER

      4. What Makes Magic Reasonable? - Tania Luhrmann 1991, c1989

        Chapter Essential For class, please read "What Makes Magic Reasonable?" from Luhrmann's book, and for essays please also read “The Magical Plane; the Emergence of a Protective Metaphor,” Ch 19

      5. OR

      6. The Microprocessing of Facts - Bruno Latour, S. Woolgar 1986, c1979

        Chapter Essential For essays please also read the 1986 edition postscript of Laboratory Life

    2. Further readings 15 items
      1. Magic, science, religion, and the scope of rationality - Stanley Jeyaraja Tambiah 1990

        Book Background

      2. On Ethnographic Surrealism - James Clifford 1981

        Article Background

      3. Murderous Humanitarianism - Various authors

        Webpage Background This is a pamphlet originally published in 1934, and reprinted in Race Traitor—Special Issue—Surrealism: Revolution Against Whiteness (Summer 1998)

      4. Dogon Restudied: A Field Evaluation of the Work of Marcel Griaule - Walter E. A. van Beek, R. M. A. Bedaux, Suzanne Preston Blier, Jacky Bouju, Peter Ian Crawford, Mary Douglas, Paul Lane and Claude Meillassoux 1991

        Article Background

      5. Phantom Africa - Michel Leiris, Brent Hayes Edwards 2017

        Book Background

      6. Centres of Calculation - Bruno Latour 1987

        Chapter Background This is chapter 6 in Bruno Latour's book, Science in Action. There are multiple copies available in the library.

  7. Week 7: Politics and the Symbolics of Power 38 items
    What is politics? Is it best understood as an expression of group interests and/or a symbolic attachment or political culture? What are the strengths and weaknesses of a cultural analysis of political identities? How did the analysis of late colonial and decolonised new nation states alter anthropological accounts of ‘the political’? What are the weaknesses and strengths of a Marxist versus Weberian analysis of politics, legitimacy and nationalism? In the 1940s and 50s during the period of decolonisation and emergence of new nations there was a sudden turn towards a focus on political anthropology. But this was approached in quite different ways by distinct groups of anthropologists. Evans Prichard and Meyer Fortes in a largely Durkheimian move sought structural forms that were similar to modern nation state forms in small-scale societies. Leach, and his student Barth, emphasised transactions or patterned practices and negotiations through time that led to political relations. The Manchester School led by Gluckman, but including Ranger, Mitchell, Bailey, Colson, Kapferer, Epstein and Cohen, emphasised a more Marxist approach that identified contradiction, conflict, interests and class in politics. This approach also took into account the history of colonial and capitalist relations in the analysis of contemporary politics and identity. It also developed new methods for fieldwork such as situational and network analysis. As a counterpoint to these historical and sociological analyses Geertz (inspired by Talcott Parsons and Shils) and Anderson offered a more Weberian, cultural reading of the symbolics of power and its emotional attachments. What is the analytical purchase of each of these approaches? How are current anthropological debates about ‘the political’ shaped by these traditions of focussing on social interests, history, attachments and/or culture?
    1. Key readings 7 items
      1. Please read EITHER

      2. Politics Past, Politics Present: some notes on the uses of anthropology in understanding the new states - Clifford Geertz 1967

        Chapter Essential This is an ebook, please follow the link to the resource and navigate to the chapter

      3. OR

      4. The Idea of Power in Javanese Society - Benedict Andersson c1972, 1990

        Chapter Essential

    2. Further readings 28 items
      1. African political systems - Meyer Fortes, E.E Evans-Pritchard 1940

        Book Background Please read especially Introduction, p. 1-24

      2. Political leadership among Swat Pathans - Fredrik Barth 1959

        Book Background

      3. Features of person and society in Swat: collected essays on Pathans - Fredrik Barth 1981

        Book Background Please read especially Chapter 7: Swat Pathans Reconsidered", pp.121-141, 151-180

      4. Ethnic groups and boundaries: the social organization of culture difference - Fredrik Barth 1969

        Book Background Please read especially Introduction

      5. The Pathan unarmed: opposition & memory in the North West Frontier - Mukulika Banerjee 2000

        Book Background Especially Introduction and Chapter 1.

      6. Order and rebellion in tribal Africa: collected essays, with an autobiographical introduction - Max Gluckman 1963

        Book Background This is an ebook accessible online, please follow the link

      7. Stratagems and spoils: a social anthropology of politics - F. G. Bailey 1969

        Book Background

      8. Gifts and poisons: the politics of reputation - F. G. Bailey 1971

        Book Background

      9. Negara: the theatre state in nineteenth-century Bali - Clifford Geertz, American Council of Learned Societies 1980 (electronic resource)

        Book Background This is an ebook accessible online, please follow the link

      10. Centers, Kings, and Charisma: Reflections on the Symbolics of Power - Clifford Geertz 2000

        Chapter Background This is an ebook accessible online, while the library also has physical copies

      11. The Census, The Map, The Museum - Benedict R. Andersson c1983, 2006

        Chapter Background This is an ebook accessible online, while the library also has physical copies

      12. Tradition and contract: the problem of order - Elizabeth Colson 1974

        Book Background Especially Chapter 4. “The Limits of Authority”

      13. Politics in an urban African community - A. L. Epstein, Rhodes-Livingstone Institute(Northern Rhodesia [Zimbabwe]) 1958

        Book Background Especially ChVI, “Tribalism and the Urban Social System”

      14. Southeast Asian perspectives on power - Liana Chua, J. Cook, N. Long, L. Wilson 2012

        Book Background Especially Introduction, and any of the chapters for ethnographic application

      15. “Our Division of the Universe”: Making a Space for the Non-Political in the Anthropology of Politics - Matei Candea & al. 2011

        Article Background Please check also other authors’ responses to Candea's article

    3. Theoretical influences 3 items
      1. The eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte - Karl Marx 1963

        Book Background Especially Part I and Part VII

      2. Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology - Max Weber 2013

        Book Background Especially Chapter III: The Types of Legitimate Domination, pp 212-245 and 266-271

  8. Week 8: Ritual: Regeneration, Cosmogony and Resistance 29 items
    What is ritual? How, if at all, does ritual change as it becomes part of states and capitalism? Does ritual always regenerate power and/or the illusion of ‘society’ or can religious practices be a form of resistance? The Manchester School challenged Durkheimian theories of ritual to explore how they could ‘release’ social tensions and contained forms of utopian or subversive practices. These themes were taken up by a later generation of anthropologists interested in subject population’s responses to colonialism, capitalism and nation states. Yet other authors such as Bloch argue that these interpretations of ritual involve a social reductionism because they do not address the particular qualities of ritual as a human practice and its specific effects. Nor do they explain the particular potency of ritual in conjuring up and legitimating essential identities and illusions of ‘society.’ To what extent have contemporary analyses of ritual escaped this debate? How too has the tradition of study of ritual in anthropology illuminated how power works in states, particularly nation-states? Do we need different frames for understanding different kinds of ritual forms (initiation, commemoration, rebellious, cosmogenic, spirit possession etc)?
    1. Key readings 7 items
      1. Rites of Institution - Pierre Bourdieu 1991

        Chapter Essential

      2. Please read EITHER

      3. OR

      4. Cultural Resistance & Class Consciousness in Bolivian Tin Mining Communities - June Nash

        Chapter Essential This link leads you to the google books-version of the chapter by Nash - the whole chapter is almost entirely accessible online, while the library also has physical copies in the main and course collection: CC: HN110.5.A8 P88 , and M: F1410 P88

    2. Further readings 22 items
      1. On the margins of religion - Frances Pine, João de Pina-Cabral 2008

        Book Background

      2. Body of power, spirit of resistance: the culture and history of a South African people - Jean Comaroff 1985

        Book Background This is an ebook accessible online, while the library has also physical copies. Read especially Chapter 7, “Ritual as Historical Practice”

      3. Ritual, Power and Colonial Domination: male initiation among the Ngaig of Papua New Guinea - W. Kempf 1995

        Chapter Background This is an ebook accessible online, please navigate to Chapter 5.

      4. From blessing to violence: history and ideology in the circumcision ritual of the Merina of Madagascar - Maurice Bloch 1986

        Book Background Especially Ch1 "The Social Determination of Ritual," and Ch 8 "The Circumcision Ritual in History"

      5. Prey into hunter: the politics of religious experience - Maurice Bloch 1992

        Book Background Read especially the excerpt on Japan, p. 51-64

      6. Ecstatic religion: a study of shamanism and spirit possession - I. M. Lewis 1989

        Book Background Especially Chapter 2, "Trance and possession"

      7. The devil and commodity fetishism in South America - Michael T. Taussig 1980

        Book Background This is an ebook accessible online, please follow the link

      8. The ritual process: structure and anti-structure - Victor W. Turner 1995

        Book Background Especially “Liminality and Communitas” (pp80-107; 112-118) Chapter 3

      9. From ritual to theatre: the human seriousness of play - Victor W. Turner c1982

        Book Background

      10. The rites of passage - Arnold van Gennep 1960

        Book Background Especially Chapters 1-2, p. 1-25

      11. Death: and, The right hand - Robert Hertz c1960, 2004

        Book Background This is an ebook accessible online. Please read especially “A Contribution to the Study of the Collective Representation of Death," p. 29-89

      12. The golden bough: a study in magic and religion - James George Frazer 1930-1936

        Book Background

  9. Week 9: Relations: Kinship and Gender 38 items
    What is Kinship? How did the movement made within feminist analysis from the concept of sex to that of gender alter anthropological understandings of kinship? Is kinship a central way of enacting relations of society and humanity that is as important in modernity as it is in non-capitalist, non-state societies. If so what does this mean for standard theories of capitalism and nation-states? Kinship is a concept that has been central to anthropology since Lewis Henry Morgan’s Ancient Society. It began in his work as an attempt to explain forms of property and family and their relationship to social evolution (influencing Engels and Marx). Yet in the 30s-50s it became an area of arid terminological study and debate. Levi-Strauss revitalised the field through his analysis of the patterns of exchange and reproduction of society that occurred through kinship relations. Yet the radical potential of his work, and its limits, only became fully clear once the feminist attack on the biological category of sex began in the 60s-70s. In the hands of anthropologists this led to the creation of the analytical category of gender, and an attention to how kinship regenerated unequal relations in western and non-western societies. Since then work has divided into research that focusses on ‘cultures of relatedness,’ reinventions of kinship through biotech and in nation-states. But through this have we lost some of the key insights about inequality present from earliest accounts of kinship in anthropology? Why are the inequalities of kinship so invisible in capitalist nation-states?
    1. Key readings 4 items
      1. "Introduction" of Vital relations: modernity and the persistent life of kinship - Susan McKinnon, Fenella Cannell 2013

        Chapter Essential For essays please read any of the other chapters

      2. Kinscripts - Carol B. Stack, Linda M. Burton 1993

        Article Essential

    2. Further readings 25 items
      1. Kinship: Still at the core - Sylvia Yanagisako 2015

        Article Background

      2. Belonging in the two Berlins: kin, state, nation - John Borneman 1992

        Book Background

      3. Introduction - Sherry B. Ortner, Harriet Whitehead 1981

        Chapter 

      4. Cultures of relatedness: new approaches to the study of kinship - Janet Carsten 2000

        Book Background Especially “Introduction” p. 1-37.

      5. After kinship - Janet Carsten, MyiLibrary 2004 (electronic resource)

        Book Background

      6. A critique of the study of kinship - David Murray Schneider c1984

        Book Background

      7. All our kin: strategies for survival in a Black community - Carol B. Stack 1997, c1974 (electronic resource)

        Book Background This is an ebook accessible online, please follow the link

      8. Families we choose: lesbians, gays, kinship - Kath Weston c1991

        Book Background

      9. A passion for difference: essays in anthropology and gender - Henrietta L. Moore 1994

        Book Background

      10. Relative values: reconfiguring kinship studies - Sarah Franklin, Susan McKinnon 2001

        Book Background Please read the “Introduction” and any of the chapters for essays. This is an ebook accessible online, please follow the link to the resource.

      11. Gens: A Feminist Manifesto for the Study of Capitalism - Laura Bear, Karen Ho, Anna Tsing, Sylvia Yanagisako 2015

        Webpage Background

      12. Woman, culture, and society - Joan Bamberger 1974

        Book Background Please read “Women, Culture, Society: a theoretical overview”

      13. Before and after gender: sexual mythologies of everyday life - Marilyn Strathern 2016

        Book Background

      14. Naturalizing power: essays in feminist cultural analysis - Sylvia Junko Yanagisako, Carol Lowery Delaney 1995 (electronic resource)

        Book Background Please read especially “Introduction,” p. 1-24

      15. Producing culture and capital: family firms in Italy - Sylvia Junko Yanagisako c2002

        Book Background

      16. What kinship is (part one) - Marshall Sahlins 2011

        Article Background

      17. The Future of Kinship Studies - Claude Levi-Strauss 1965

        Article Background

      18. The elementary structures of kinship - Claude Lévi-Strauss 1969

        Book Background

    3. Theoretical influences 9 items
      1. Women on the Market - Luce Irigaray 1972

        Chapter Background

      2. The second sex - Simone de Beauvoir, Constance Borde, Sheila Malovany-Chevallier 2010

        Book Background

      3. The origin of the family private property and the state - Friedrich Engels, Ernest Untermann 2014

        Book Background This is an ebook accessible online while the Library also has physical copies

      4. Ancient society; or, Researches in the lines of human progress from savagery, through barbarism to civilization - L. H. Morgan c1877, 1963

        Book Background Please read especially ChV: The Monogamian Family (p. 468 onwards), and ChVI

      5. Lewis Henry Morgan and the invention of kinship - Thomas R. Trautmann c1987

        Book Background

      6. Morgan: Imagining Kinship - Helen Gardner, Patrick McConvell 2015

        Chapter Background

      7. Caliban and the witch: [women, the body and primitive accumulation] - Silvia Federici 2004

        Book Background Especially Introduction and Chapter 2 “The Accumulation of Labour and the Degredation of Women: Constructing ‘difference’ in the transition to capitalism”

  10. Week 10: Inequality, Capitalism and Post-coloniality 37 items
    What was lost, and what was gained, in the movement from materialist global histories and structural-marxist approaches to post-colonial analyses? Is it possible to reconcile Marxist and Foucauldian approaches to inequality, power and history? What is the specific contribution of anthropology to the understanding of inequality and its reproduction in time and space? Approaches to inequality from the 1950s to 1970s were influenced by Marxist accounts of history and accumulation. This led to innovative materialist global histories and structural-Marxist approaches to inequality. But out of this materialist tradition emerged an analysis of other relations (such as race, gender and sexuality), a less teleological account of history and an emphasis on the ‘productivity’ of power. This work centered on the problem of post-coloniality or the reproduction in the present of historical inequalities in social relations and discourses. It was influenced by, but also was a critique of, Foucault. What have we gained and lost in our understanding of inequality as a result of this shift? We address this question in relation to analyses of race, sexuality and caste as post-colonial formations.
    1. Key readings 4 items
      1. Ruins and Ghosts: The Domestic Uncanny and the Materialization of Anglo‐Indian Genealogies in Kharagpur - Laura Bear 2007

        Chapter Essential This is an ebook, please follow the link to the resource and navigate the ebook to the chapter, which you can print out

    2. Further readings 21 items
      1. US Global Materialism 5 items
        1. Europe and the people without history - Eric R. Wolf 2010, c1982

          Book Background

        2. Sweetness and power: the place of sugar in modern history - Sidney W. Mintz 1985

          Book Background

        3. History as Commodity - Michael Taussig 1989

          Article Background

      2. Structural Marxism 4 items
        1. Perspectives in Marxist anthropology - Maurice Godelier, Robert Brain 1977

          Book Background

        2. Maidens, meal and money: capitalism and the domestic community - Claude Meillassoux 1981

          Book Background

      3. Post-Coloniality 11 items
        1. Europe and the people without history - Eric R. Wolf, Noel Lallana Diaz c2010

          Book Background Read especially “Introduction” p. 3-23

        2. Race and the education of desire: Foucault's History of sexuality and the colonial order of things - Ann Laura Stoler 1995

          Book Background Especially ChI, III, IV

        3. Lines of the nation: Indian Railway workers, bureaucracy, and the intimate historical self - Laura Bear c2007

          Book Background Introduction, Ch 10 (Ch 5, Ch 6 for essays)

        4. Castes of mind: colonialism and the making of modern India - Nicholas B. Dirks 2001

          Book Background This is an ebook accessible online

        5. Imagining India - Ronald B. Inden 1990

          Book Background

        6. Caste today - C. J. Fuller 1996

          Book Background

        7. Homo hierarchicus: the caste system and its implications - Louis Dumont 1980

          Book Background Especially Introduction

    3. Theoretical influences 12 items
      1. Global Materialist History 2 items
        1. The Communist manifesto - Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Jeffrey C. Isaac, Steven Lukes 2012

          Book Background The Communist Manifesto exists also as an ebook, please follow the link. The Library has physical copies of the latest 2012 edition

      2. Structural Marxism 3 items
        1. Marx's Grundrisse - Karl Marx, David McLellan Apr. 1980

          Book Background Read especially "The Method of Political Economy"

        2. Pre-capitalist modes of production - Barry Hindess, Paul Q. Hirst 1975

          Book Background

      3. Post-Coloniality 7 items
        1. The Subject and Power - Michel Foucault 1982

          Chapter Background

        2. We Other Victorians - Michel Foucault 1972

          Chapter Background

        3. Black skin, white masks - Frantz Fanon 2008 (electronic resource)

          Book Background Especially Introduction and Ch 5 “The Fact of Blackness”

        4. The Colonizer and the colonized - Albert Memmi, Howard Greenfeld 2003

          Book Background

        5. Orientalism: Western conceptions of the Orient - Edward W. Said 1985

          Book Background Especially Introduction, and on Marx p. 153-157

        6. The portable Karl Marx - Karl Marx, Eugene Kamenka c1983

          Book Background Read "The British Rule in India’ and ‘The Future Results of British Rule in India,’ p. 329-341

        7. Marx at the margins: On nationalism, ethnicity, and non-western societies - Kevin Anderson c2010

          Book Background Especially Ch 1 “Colonial Encounters in the 1850s”

  11. Week 11: Personhood: agency, social change, ethics 33 items
    What is personhood? How has anthropological theory constructed ‘the person’ and how does this relate to the categories of our informants? Do persons have ‘agency’? What is ‘structure’? How does social change happen? Mauss wrote two essays on the person, one that addressed collective social identities and the mind, and the other that addressed unconscious patterning in physical action. With this he founded a recurring analytical dilemmas for anthropology—a split between body and mind and conscious and unconscious action along with a division beween individual agency and social structure. Anthropologists ever since (for example Firth) have tried to think through these issues. How were these dilemmas explored differently in the1980s practice theory of Bourdieu, Ortner and Sahlins, and in the more recent anthropology of ethics (that started within South Asian anthropology and then spread with the influence of Foucault across other arenas)? Have we gone beyond Mauss? Does the ethical turn suspend the question of ‘the social,’ unintended consequences, social change and/or material encounters with the world? Or does it have a more sophisticated account of ‘agency’?
    1. Key readings 5 items
      1. Subjectivity - T. M. Luhrmann 2006

        Article Essential

    2. Further readings 28 items
      1. Ordinary ethics: anthropology, language, and action - Michael Lambek 2010

        Book Background This is an ebook accessible online, please follow the link

      2. Reassembling individual subjects - Caroline Humphrey 2008

        Article Background

      3. The paradox of hope: journeys through a clinical borderland - Cheryl Mattingly c2010

        Book Background

      4. Ordinary ethics in China - Charles Stafford 2013

        Book Background

      5. The end of the body - Jonathan Parry 1989

        Chapter Background

      6. Ethical life in South Asia - Anand Pandian, Daud Ali c2010

        Book Background

      7. Articulation of physical and social bodies in Kerala - Filippo Osella, Caroline Osella 1996

        Article Background

      8. Hindu Transactions: Diversity Without Dualism - McKim Marriott 1976

        Book Background

      9. Hindu transactions: Diversity without dualism - McKim Marriott 1976

        Chapter Background The Library is unable to provide an electronic copy of an extract from this book, due to copyright restrictions placed on it by the publisher.

      10. The Subject and Power - Foucault, Michel 1982

        Article Background

      11. Technologies of the self - Michel Foucault 1988

        Chapter Background

      12. Outline of a theory of practice - Pierre Bourdieu, Richard Nice 1977

        Book Background This is an ebook accessible online

      13. Pascalian meditations - Pierre Bourdieu 2000

        Book Background Especially chapters “Bodily Knowledge” and “Social Being, Time and the Sense of Existence.”

      14. Historical metaphors and mythical realities: structure in the early history of the Sandwich Islands Kingdom - Marshall Sahlins, Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania 1981

        Book Background This is an ebook accessible online, please follow the link

      15. Techniques of the body - Marcel Mauss 1973

        Article Background

  12. The make-believe space: affective geography in a postwar polity - Yael Navaro-Yashin 2012

    Book 

  13. The Affect Theory Reader - Melissa Gregg, Gregory J. Seigworth 2010

    Book 

  14. Affect: An Introduction - Daniel White, Daniel White 2017

    Article 

  15. What Matters - Catherine Lutz 2017

    Article 

  16. The Affect Effect - Mathijs Pelkmans 2013

    Article 

  17. Culture theory: essays on mind, self and emotion - Richard A. Shweder, Robert A. LeVine 1984

    Book 

  18. Ordinary affects - Kathleen Stewart 2007

    Book 

All rights reserved ©